引用元:http://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/president-medical-history/3509014.html

1.原文

Recent stories about American presidential candidates have raised questions about how much candidates should say about their medical history while running for office.

In the United States, no law requires presidential candidates or presidents to release medical records or information about their health to the public.

But one recent study of likely voters found that 86 percent of those questioned said a candidate’s health is important to their vote.

Most presidential candidates are over age 50.

This issue affects somewhat younger candidates, too.

John F. Kennedy was the youngest person to be elected U.S. president.

He was 43 years old when he won the election of 1960.

Kennedy had Addison’s disease and back pain that were treated with drugs before he was elected.

This information was not released to the public.

In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president with a clear disability: He had polio.

Few photographs survived of Roosevelt sitting in his wheelchair.

Late in his presidency, he also suffered from heart disease.

The public never heard about his heart problems until Roosevelt died, just months into his fourth term in office.

The U.S. Constitution is clear that once a president has died, the vice president takes office.

But questions have arisen throughout American history about what happens when a president is unable to carry out his or her duties, like when under anesthesia.

Or the president could be in a coma and unable to communicate.

Following Kennedy’s death, Congress passed the 25th Amendment to the constitution. That amendment states, in part, that when a president is incapacitated, the vice president and members of the president’s cabinet can act.

They can make a formal declaration to the leaders of the Senate and House that the president is unable to carry out his duties.

The vice president then immediately can act for the president.

But the amendment has never been used, even when former President Ronald Reagan was shot in 1981.

President Barack Obama has released reports of his physical examinations periodically throughout his presidency and once during his campaign.

He was not legally required to do so.

This move has become a tradition for presidents in the years since the passing of the 25th Amendment.

In 2008, Obama defeated U.S. Senator John McCain for the presidency.

During the election campaign, McCain released more than 1,000 pages of his medical records to the public. McCain was 72 years old at the time.

2.音韻分析

Recent stories about American presidential candidates /have raised questions /about how much candidates should say /about their medical history /whil(e) running for office.

In the United States, /no law requires presidential candidates or presidents /to release medical records or information /about their health to the public.

But one recent study of likely voters found /that 86 percent of^those questioned said /a candidate’s health is important to their vote.

Most presidential candidates are over age 50.

This issue affects /somewhat(t) younger candidates, too.

John F. Kennedy was the youngest person /to be elected U.S. president.

He was 43 years old /when he won the election of 1960.

Kennedy had Addison’s disease and back pain /tha(t)^ were treated with drugs before he was elected.

This information was not released to the public.

In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt /was elected president /with a clear disability: He had polio.

Few photographs survived /of Roosevelt sitting in his wheelchair.

Late in his presidency, /he also suffered from hear(t) disease.

The public never heard^about his heart problems /until Roosevelt died, /just months into his fourth term in office.

The U.S. Constitution is clear /that once a president has died, /the vice president takes office.

But questions have^arisen /throughout American history /about what happens /when a president^is unable to carry out his or her duties, l/ike when under anesthesia.

Or the president could be in a coma /and unable to communicate.

Following Kennedy’s death, /Congress passed the 25th Amendmentto the constitution. That^amendment states, in part, /that when a president is incapacitated, /the vice president and members /of the president’s cabinet can act.

They can make a formal declaration /to the leaders of the Senate and House /that^the president is unable to carry out his duties.

The vice president then immediately can act for the president.

But the amendment has never been used, /even when former President Ronald Reagan was shot in 1981.

President Barack Obama /has released reports of his physical examinations /periodically throughout his presidency /and once during his campaign.

He was not legally required to do so.

This move has become a tradition /for presidents in the years /since the passing of the 25th Amendment.

In 2008, Obama defeated U.S. Senator John McCain /for the presidency.

During the election campaign, /McCain released more than 1,000 pages of his medical records/ to the public.

McCain was 72 years old at the time.

3.日本語訳

アメリカ大統領候補に関する最近の話は、候補者がどれだけ彼らの健康に関する情報を公表すべきかというものだ。

アメリカでは、大統領候補に彼らの健康に関する情報や、病歴を開示するように求める法律はない。

しかし最近の有権者を対象とした調査によると、調査の対象となった有権者の86%が、候補者の健康状態は投票する際に重要だと答えた。

ほとんどの大統領候補は50歳を超えている。

この問題は多少年齢層の低い候補者にも影響を与える。

John F.Kennedyは最年少でアメリカ大統領に選ばれた。

1960年の選挙で選ばれたのは彼が43歳の時だった。

Kennedyは、選挙で勝つ前からAddison病と背中の痛みを抱えていて、薬で治療をしていた。これは国民に開示されなかった。

1932年Franklin D. Rooseveltは明らかな身体障害を抱えていた。彼はポリオを抱えていた。

Rooseveltが車いすに座っているところを映した写真はほとんど残っていない。

任期の終り頃、彼は心臓病でも苦しんだ。

彼の四年の任期の間、また彼が死ぬまで、国民はその心臓病に関して何も聞かなかった。

合衆国憲法は、大統領が死亡したら、副大統領が後を継ぐと明記している。

しかし大統領が治療のための麻酔などで、業務遂行ができなくなったとき、アメリカの歴史上一体何が起こるのかという疑問が浮かびあがった。

また、大統領が昏睡状態で、会話ができないときなどだ。

Kennedyの死後、国会は25回目の憲法改正を行った。

改正された結果、ある程度大統領が仕事をするのが難しくなったとき、副大統領と大統領の顧問団が、仕事をするということになった。

彼らは上院と下院のぞれぞれの議長に、大統領は自身の義務を遂行できないと、公的な宣言ができる。

副大統領はそれから直ちに大統領のために行動ができる。

しかし改正された憲法は、1981年にRonald Reganが撃たれるまで、効果を発揮することはなかった。

Barack Obama大統領は選挙の時に一度、そして任期中は定期的に、自身の健康状態の調査報告書を提出した。

彼は法的にそうするように要求されたわけではない。

25回目の憲法改正以来、この動きは大統領にとって伝統になった。(大統領の慣習になっていった。)

2008年、大統領選でObamaはアメリカの上院議員John McCainに勝利した。

選挙運動期間、McCainは1000ページ以上の健康に関する報告書を提出した。

彼は当時72歳だった。

4.語彙、表現

・presidential candidates 大統領候補

・voters   投票者、有権者

・somewhatt いくらか

・disability  身体障害

・constitution 憲法

・vice president 副大統領

・anesthesia 麻酔

・coma 昏睡状態

・amendment 改正

・incapacitated 生活に不自由な

・declaration 宣言

・immediately ただちに

・periodically 定期的に